Irish Alphabet

Manuscript Ogham lettters20
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  1. Across manuscripts the values of the forfeda vary and the glyphs and may be swapped17


  1. Unicode Character Code Charts. unicode.org.
    1. “Ogham.” unicode.org.
  2. WG2 Document Registry, Unicode® Technical Committee Document Registry, unicode.org, unicode.org.
    1. Rick McGowan. “Ogham.” Unicode Technical Report #3: Exploratory Proposals, 1992-10-28, unicode.org.
    2. Michael Everson. Proposal for encoding the Ogham script in ISO 10646. 1994-11-16, N1103R, evertype.com.
    3. Michael Everson, Olle Järnefors. Allocating Ogham and Runes to the BMP: a strategy for making the BMP maximally useful. 1996-08-04, N1443, evertype.com.
    4. Michael Everson. Ogham Standardization [Questionnaire]. April 1997, evertype.com.
    5. Michael Everson. The Names of Ogham. April 1997, evertype.com.
    6. Michael Everson. Results of National Enquiry on Ogham. 1997-05-30, NSAI/AGITS/WG6 N36, evertype.com.
    7. V.S. Umamaheswaran, Mike Ksar. Unconfirmed Meeting Minutes, WG 2 Meeting # 33, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 30 June – 4 July 1997. 1997-10-24, N1603, L2/97-288, dkuug.dk.
    8. Michael Everson. Results of ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 decision on Ogham. 1997-07-27, NSAI/AGITS/WG6 N37, evertype.com.
    9. Andrew West. Proposal to define 21 variation sequences for Ogham letters. 2016-04-21, N4721, L2/16-110, unicode.org, unicode.org.
  3. The Unicode® Standard: Version 15.0 – Core Specification. September 2022, unicode.org.
    1. “Ogham.” p. 362, unicode.org.
  4. Ogham [Ogam]. ScriptSource, SIL International, scriptsource.org.
  5. Noto Ogham. Google, github.com.
  6. Charles Graves. “The Ogham Alphabet.” Hermathena, Vol. II [2], No. IV [4], 1876, pp. 443–472, jstor.org.
  7. Richard Rolt Brash. The Ogam Inscribed Monuments of the Gaedhil in the British Islands. Edited by George M. Atkinson, London, George Bell and Sons, 1879, hathitrust.org.
  8. Samuel Ferguson. Ogham Inscriptions in Ireland, Wales, and Scotland. Edinburgh, David Douglas, 1887, hathitrust.org, archive.org.
  9. R. A. Stewart Macalister. Studies in Irish Epigraphy, A Collection of Revised Readings of the Ancient Inscriptions of Ireland, With Introduction and Notes. London, David Nutt, hathitrust.org.
    1. Part I [1], Containing the Ogham Inscriptions of the Barony of Corkaguiney, and the Counties of Mayo, Wicklow, and Kildare. 1897.
    2. Part II [2], Containing the Ogham Inscriptions of the Counties of Kerry (Not Included in Part I), Limerick, Cavan, and King's Co.; as well as the Ogham Inscriptions of the Irish Type in Scotland and the Isle of Man. 1902.
    3. Part III [3], Containing the Ogham Inscriptions of the Counties of Cork, Tipperary and Waterford. 1907.
  10. J. Romilly Allen. The Early Christian Monuments of Scotland. An Introduction, Being the Rhind Lectures for 1892 by Joseph Anderson, Edinburgh, Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Neill & Co., Limited, MDCCCCIII [1903], archive.org, archive.org.
    1. Douglas Mac Lean. “[Review].” Speculum, Vol. 70, January 1995, No. 1, pp. 108–110, doi.org.
  11. George Calder. Auraicept na n-Éces: The Scholars' Primer. Edinburgh, John Grant, 1917, hathitrust.org, archive.org.
  12. Howard Meroney. “Early Irish Letter-Names.” Speculum, Vol. XXIV [24], January 1949, No. 1, pp. 19–43, doi.org.
  13. V. E. Nash-Williams. The Early Christian Monuments of Wales. Cardiff, University of Wales Press, 1950, archive.org.
  14. James Carney. “The Invention of the Ogom Cipher.” Ériu, Volume 26, 1975, pp. 53–65, jstor.org.
  15. Damian McManus. “Ogam: Archaizing, Orthography and the Authenticity of the Manuscript Key to the Alphabet.” Ériu, Volume 37, 1986, pp. 1–31, jstor.org.
  16. Damian McManus. “Irish Letter-names and Their Kennings.” Ériu, Volume 39, 1988, pp. 127–168, jstor.org.
  17. Damian McManus. A Guide to Ogam. Maynooth Monographs, 4, An Sagart, Maynooth, 1991, archive.org.
  18. Patrick Sims-Williams. “Some Problems in Deciphering the Early Irish Ogam Alphabet.” Transactions of the Philological Society, Volume 91, Issue 2, 1993, pp. 133–180, doi.org.
  19. Elisabeth Okasha. Corpus of Early Christian Inscribed Stones of South-west Britain. Leicester University Press, 1993, archive.org.
  20. Damian McManus. “Ogham.” The World’s Writing Systems, Edited by Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, Oxford University Press, 1996, pp. 340–345, openlibrary.org.
  21. Katherine Stuart Forsyth. The Ogham Inscriptions of Scotland: An Edited Corpus. Thesis, Harvard University, 1996.
  22. Damian McManus. The Ogam Stones at University College Cork. Cork University Press, 2004, archive.org.
  23. Roisin Mclaughlin. “Fénius Farsaid and the Alphabets.” Ériu, Volume 59, 2009, pp. 1–24, researchgate.net, doi.org.
  24. Erich Poppe. “Writing systems and cultural identity: ogam in medieval and early modern Ireland.” Language & History, Volume 61, Numbers 1–2, 2018, pp. 23–38, doi.org.
  25. David Stifter. “Insular Celtic: Ogam.” Palaeohispanica, Number 20, 2020, pp. 855–885, doi.org.
  26. Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London, ucl.ac.uk.
  27. Ogham in 3D. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, dias.ie.
  28. OG(H)AM. University of Glasgow, Maynooth University, glasgow.ac.uk.
  29. Andrew West. Ogham. Babelstone, babelstone.co.uk.
  30. Michael Everson. Every Ogham thing on the Web. Evertype, evertype.com.