Old Turkic

Orkhon Runiform Script

Old Turkic vowels
front back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
high transcription ⟨i⟩ ⟨ü⟩ ⟨ï⟩ ⟨u⟩
Orkhon 𐰃 𐰇 𐰃 𐰆
Yenisei 𐰄 𐰈 𐰄 𐰆
mid transcription ⟨e⟩ ⟨ö⟩ ⟨o⟩
Orkhon 𐰃 𐰇 𐰆
Yenisei 𐰅 𐰈 𐰆
low transcription ⟨ä⟩ ⟨a⟩
Orkhon 𐰀 𐰀
Yenisei 𐰂 𐰁

Orkhon vowels
unrounded rounded
high low front back
transliteration ⟨I⟩ ⟨A⟩ ⟨ẅ⟩ ⟨w⟩
vowels ⟨i, ï, e⟩ ⟨ä, a⟩ ⟨ü, ö⟩ ⟨u, o⟩
character 𐰃 𐰀 𐰇 𐰆

Old Turkic consonants7
labial alveolar palatal velar
unvoiced oral ⟨p⟩ ⟨t⟩ ⟨č⟩ ⟨k⟩
voiced oral ⟨b⟩ ⟨d⟩ ⟨y⟩ ⟨g⟩
nasal ⟨m⟩ ⟨n⟩ ⟨ñ⟩ ⟨ŋ⟩
unvoiced sibilant ⟨s⟩ ⟨š⟩
voiced sibilant ⟨z⟩
liquid ⟨l⟩ ⟨r⟩

Old Turkic consonants
transliteration Orkhon Yenisei
⟨b²⟩ 𐰋 𐰌
⟨d²⟩ 𐰓
⟨g²⟩ 𐰏 𐰐
⟨l²⟩ 𐰠
⟨n²⟩ 𐰤 𐰥
⟨r²⟩ 𐰼
⟨s²⟩ 𐰾
⟨t²⟩ 𐱅 𐱆
⟨y²⟩ 𐰘 𐰙
⟨k²⟩ 𐰚 𐰛
⟨š²⟩ (𐱁) 𐱂
⟨ŋ²⟩ (𐰭) 𐰮
⟨b¹⟩ 𐰉 𐰊
⟨d¹⟩ 𐰑 𐰒
⟨g¹⟩ 𐰍 𐰎
⟨l¹⟩ 𐰞 𐰟
⟨n¹⟩ 𐰣
⟨r¹⟩ 𐰺 𐰻
⟨s¹⟩ 𐰽
⟨t¹⟩ 𐱃 𐱄
⟨y¹⟩ 𐰖 𐰗
⟨k¹⟩ 𐰴 𐰵
⟨š¹⟩ (𐱁) 𐱀
⟨ŋ¹⟩ (𐰭) 𐰬
⟨č⟩ 𐰲 𐰳
⟨m⟩ 𐰢
⟨p⟩ 𐰯
⟨š⟩ 𐱁 (𐱂)
⟨z⟩ 𐰔 𐰕
⟨ŋ⟩ 𐰭 (𐰮)
⟨ñ⟩ 𐰪 𐰫
k⟩ 𐰜 𐰝
wk⟩ 𐰸 𐰹
ič⟩ 𐰱
ïk⟩ 𐰶 𐰷
wp⟩ 𐰰
wt⟩ 𐱇
⟨nč⟩ 𐰨 𐰩
⟨nt⟩ 𐰦 𐰧
⟨lt⟩ 𐰡
⟨aš⟩ 𐰿
⟨baš⟩ 𐱈
⟨či⟩ (𐰲‍𐰃)


  1. Unicode 15.0 Character Code Charts. 2022, unicode.org.
    1. Old Turkic. unicode.org.
  2. WG2 Document Registry, Unicode® Technical Committee Document Registry, unicode.org, unicode.org.
    1. Proposing to supplement with the speclal scrip and character for Uyghur Orkhun. China National Body, 14 August 2006, N3164, L2/06-392, unicode.org, unicode.org.
    2. [Scarborough, Benjamin]. Response to N3164. 24 September 2006, N3177, unicode.org.
    3. Silamu, Wushour. Proposing to supplement with the speclal scrip and character for Uyghur Orkhun. 1 February 2007, N3258, L2/07-216, unicode.org, unicode.org.
    4. Proposing to supplement with the special script and character for Old Turkic. China National Body, 19 September 2007, N3299R, L2/07-305, unicode.org, unicode.org.
    5. Proposal for encoding the Old Turkic script in the SMP of the UCS. 1 January 2008, N3357R, L2/07-325R, unicode.org.
    6. Proposal for encoding the Old Turkic script in the SMP of the UCS. 25 January 2008, N3357R2, L2/08-071, unicode.org, unicode.org.
    7. Pandey, Anshuman. Proposal to encode the Old Turkic ligature ORKHON CI. 17 February 2019, L2/19-069, unicode.org.
    8. Everson, Michael; West, Andrew. Proposal to revise the glyph of one Old Turkic character. 24 August 2021, N5164, L2/21-153, unicode.org, unicode.org.
  3. The Unicode® Standard: Version 15.0 – Core Specification. September 2022, unicode.org.
    1. Old Turkic. p. 614, unicode.org.
  4. Tekin, Talât. A Grammar of Orkhon Turkic. Indiana University, Bloomington, 1968, archive.org.
  5. Erdal, Marcel. Further notes on the Irk Bitig. Turkic Languages, Volume 1, 1997, Edited by Lars Johanson, Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, pp. 63–100, uni-goettingen.de, academia.edu.
  6. Tekin, Talat. Orhon Türkçesi Grameri. İstanbul, 2003.
  7. Erdal, Marcel. A Grammar of Old Turkic. Brill, 2004, doi.org, academia.edu.
  8. Erdal, Marcel. Did the Old Turkic Writing System have Syllabic Characters? Interpreting the Turkic Runiform Sources and the Position of the Altai Corpus, Klaus Schwarz Verlag, Berlin, 2015, pp. 42–45, doi.org, academia.edu.
  9. Károly, László; Rentzsch, Julian. A Database of Turkic Runiform Insciptions. Uppsala University, Department of Linguistics and Philology, uu.se.
  10. Noto Old Turkic. Google, github.com.
  11. Old Turkic, Orkhon Runic [Orkh]. ScriptSource, SIL International, scriptsource.org.