Runic Alphabets

Elder futhark alphabet20
transliteration f u þ a r k g w h n i j ï p z s t b e m l ŋ d o

Younger futhark alphabet20
transliteration f u þ ą r k h n i a s t b m l ʀ

Anglo-Saxon runic alphabet141020
transliteration f u þ o r c g w h n i j ȝ p x s t b e m l ŋ d œ a æ y e͡a k i͡o q s͡t
Franks Casket vowels2.5

Medieval runic alphabet20
transliteration f v u y w þ ð o ø ǫ r k g ŋ h n ɴ i e æ a s s c z t d b p p m m l ʟ y y q x

Runic calendar years7
golden number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Tolkien runic alphabet2.5
letter a b c d e f g h i/j k l m n o p r s t u/v w x y z ea ee eo ng oo sh st th


It cannot be claimed that the Runic Poems are of any great literary value; they are exactly parallel, indeed, to the old nursery rhyme: ‘A was an Archer who shot at a frog; B was a Butcher who had a big dog.’9
If there seems too much of my own work in [the following bibliography] this is because, like most runologists, I suspect that only my own opinions are valid.14


  1. Unicode Character Code Charts.
    1. “Runic.”
  2. WG2 Document Registry, Unicode® Technical Committee Document Registry,,
    1. Rick McGowan. “Northern Runes.” Unicode Technical Report #3: Exploratory Proposals, 1992-11-25,
    2. Michael Everson. Consensus Name and ordering proposal for the Futhark. 1995-09-19, N1262,
    3. Second Revised Proposal for Runic Character Names. Sweden, Ireland, 1996-07-23, N1417,,
    4. Michael Everson. Ordering the Runic script.
      1. 2001-01-08, SC22/WG20 N809,
      2. 2001-01-09, L2/01-023, SC22/WG20 N809R,,
    5. Michael Everson, Andrew West. Proposal to encode additional Runic characters in the UCS.
      1. 2011-04-01, N4013, L2/11-096,
      2. 2011-05-10, N4013R, L2/11-096R,,
  3. The Unicode® Standard: Version 15.0 – Core Specification. September 2022,
    1. “Runic.” pp. 353–355,
  4. Runic [Runr]. ScriptSource, SIL International,
  5. Noto Runic. Google,
  6. BabelStone Runic.
  7. Olaus Worm. ᚱᚢᚿᛂᛦ [Runer] Seu Danica Literatura Antiqvissima. Hafniæ.
    1. M. DC. XXXVI. [1636],
    2. Editio Secunda, M. DC. LI. [1651],
  8. George Stephens. The Old-Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England. H. H. Thiele.
    1. Vol. I [1], 1866–67,
    2. Vol. II [2], 1867–68,
    3. Vol. III [3], 1884,
    4. Handbook. 1884,,
  9. Bruce Dickens. Runic and Heroic Poems of the Old Teutonic Peoples. Cambridge University Press, 1915,
  10. Bruce Dickens. “A System of Transliteration for Old English Runic Inscriptions.” Leeds Studies in English and Kindred Languages, Number One [1], 1932, pp. 15–19,,
  11. R. Derolez. Runica Manuscripta: The English Tradition. Rijksuniversiteit te Gent, Werken uitgegeven door de Faculteit van de Wijsbegeerte en Letteren, 118e Aflevering, De Tempel, Brugge, 1954.
  12. Sven B. F. Jansson. The Runes of Sweden. Translated by Peter G. Foote, P. A. Norstedt & Söners Förlag, Stockholm, 1962,
  13. Ralph W. V. Elliott. Runes: An Introduction. 1959, with minor corrections 1963,
  14. R. I. Page. An Introduction to English Runes. Methuen & Co Ltd, London, 1973,
  15. Maureen Halsall. The Old English Rune Poem: A Critical Edition. McMaster Old English Studies and Texts, 2, University of Toronto Press, 1981,
  16. R. I. Page. Runes (Reading the Past). University of California Press, British Museum, 1987,
  17. Bengt Odenstedt. On the Origin and Early History of the Runic Script: Typology and Graphic Variation in the Older Futhark. Acta Academiae Regiae Gustavi Adolphi, 59, Uppsala, 1990.
  18. R. I. Page. Runes and Runic Inscriptions: Collected Essays on Anglo-Saxon and Viking Runes. The Boydell Press, 1995,
  19. Ralph W. V. Elliott. “The Runic Script.” The World’s Writing Systems, Edited by Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, Oxford University Press, 1996, pp. 333–339,
  20. Digitala runor: en historisk skrift i datorns värld. TemaNord 1997:623, Nordisk ministerråd, København,
  21. Birgit Sawyer. The Viking-Age Rune-Stones: Custom and Commemoration in Early Medieval Scandinavia. Oxford University Press, 2000,
  22. Elmer H. Antonsen. Runes and Germanic Linguistics. Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs, 140, Mouton de Gruyter, 2002,
  23. Tineke Looijenga. Texts and Contexts of the Oldest Runic Inscriptions. The Northern World, Volume 4, Brill, 2003,,
  24. Odd Einar Haugen. “The Unicodification of Runic Script.” NOWELE: North-Western European Language Evolution, Volume 46/47, June 2005, pp. 87–102,
  25. Sofia Pereswetoff-Morath. Viking-Age Runic Plates: Readings and Interpretations. Acta Academiae Regiae Gustavi Adolphi, 155, Runrön, 21, Uppsala, 2019,,
  26. Livia Kaiser. Runes Across the North Sea from the Migration Period and Beyond: An Annotated Edition of the Old Frisian Runic Corpus. Ergänzungsbände zum Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde, Band 126, Runische Schriftlichkeit in den germanischen Sprachen, Band 2, De Gruyter, 2021,
  27. Nytt om runer: Meldingsblad om runeforskning. Runearkivet, Universitetets kulturhistoriske museer, Universitetet i Oslo,
    1. Helmer Gustavson. “The ISO Runes Project.” Nr. 17, 2002, publ. 2004, pp. 45–46,
  28. Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies. University of Oslo, Uppsala University,