Vai consonants2.4
labial dental alveolar palatal velar labial-
nasal /m/ /n/ /ɲ/ /ŋ/
stop voiceless /p/ /t/ /tʃ/ /k/ /kp/
voiced /b/ /d/ /dʒ/ /g/ /gb/
implosive /ɓ/ /ɗ/
pre-nasalized /mɓ/ /nɗ/ /ndʒ/ /ŋg/ /mgb/
fricative voiceless /f/ (/θ/) /s/ (/ʃ/)
voiced /v/ (/ð/) /z/ (/ʒ/)
approximant /l/ /j/ /w/ /h/
rhotic (/r/)

Vai vowels2.4
front back
high /i/ /u/
mid /e/ /o/
/ɛ/ /ɔ/
low /a/

Vai syllabary2.4
/e/ /i/ /a/ /o/ /u/ /ɔ/ /ɛ/
/ŋ/ /˜/


  1. Unicode Character Code Charts.
    1. “Vai.”
  2. WG2 Document Registry, Unicode® Technical Committee Document Registry,,
    1. Charles Riley. Status report on Vai encoding . 2004-11-18, L2/04-374,
    2. Charles L. Riley, José R. Rivera, Tombekai V. Sherman, Jason Glavy. Preliminary proposal to encode the Vai script into the SMP of the UCS. 2005-01-31.
      1. L2/05-053,
      2. L2/05-053R,
    3. Charles Riley. List of Contributors and Participants in the Vai Proposal for Unicode. 2005-07-21, L2/05-171,
    4. Michael Everson, Charles Riley, José Rivera. Proposal to add the Vai script to the BMP of the UCS. 2005-08-01, N2948R, L2/05-159R,,
    5. Michael Everson, Mohamed Nyei, Charles Riley, Tombekai Sherman. Proposal for addition of Vai characters to the UCS.
      1. 2006-04-09, N3081, L2/06-120,
      2. 2006-04-23, N3081R, L2/06-120R,,
    6. Rick McGowan. Regarding WG2 N3081, proposal for additions to Vai. 2006-04-18, L2/06-136,
    7. Michael Everson. Proposal to add additional historic syllables for Vai to the UCS.
      1. 2007-04-17, N3243, L2/07-104,
      2. 2007-04-18, N3243R, L2/07-104R,
  3. The Unicode® Standard: Version 15.0 – Core Specification. September 2022,
    1. “Vai.” pp. 807–808,
  4. ALA-LC Romanization Tables. American Library Association, Library of Congress,
    1. “Vai.” Cataloging Service Bulletin, Number 128, Fall 2010, pp. 29–31,
    2. “Vai.” 2011,
  5. Vai [Vaii]. ScriptSource, SIL International,
  6. Noto Vai. Google,
  7. S. W. Koelle. Narrative of an Expedition into the Vy Country of West Africa. London, Seeleys, Hatchards, J. Nisbet and Co, MDCCCXLIX [1849],
  8. F. E. Forbes. “Despatch communicating the discovery of a Native Written Character at Bohmar, on the Western Coast of Africa, near Liberia, accompanied by a Vocabulary of the Vahie or Vei Tongue.” The Journal of the Royal Geographic Society of London, Vol. 20, Part 1, 1850 [complete volume 1851], pp. 89–101, read 1849-04-23,,
  9. E. Norris. “Notes on the Vei Language and Alphabet.” The Journal of the Royal Geographic Society of London, Vol. 20, Part 1, 1850 [complete volume 1851], pp. 101–113,,
  10. S. W. Koelle. Outlines of a Grammar of the Vei Language.
    1. London, Church Missionary House, 1854.
    2. Republished [with introduction by P. E. H. Hair], African Languages Review, Fourah Bay College, Gregg International Publishers Limited, 1968,
  11. Maurice Delafosse. “Les Vaï, leur langue et leur système d’écriture.” L’Anthropologie, Tome Dixième [Vol. 10], 1899, Paris, Masson et Cie, pp. 129–151, pp. 294–314,,
  12. Payne. “Foreign Missions of the Protestant Episcopal Church: Africa.” The Spirit of Missions, Vol. XXV [25], October 1860, pp. 365–384,
  13. H. C. Creswick. “On the Syllabic Characters in use amongst the Vey Negroes.” Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London, Vol. VI [6], 1868, read 1867-07-09, pp. 260–263,
  14. Momolu Massaquoi. “The Vey Language.” The Spirit of Missions, Vol. LXIV [64], November 1899, pp. 577–579,
  15. Harry Johnston. Liberia. Vol. 1–2, London, Hutchinson & Co., 1906,
  16. F. W. H. Migeod. “The Syllabic Writing of the Vai People.” Journal of the African Society, Vol. IX [9], No. XXXIII [33], October 1909, pp. 46–58,,,
  17. Momolu Massaquoi. “The Vai People and their Syllabic Writing.” Journal of the African Society, Vol. X [10], No. XL [40], July 1911, pp. 459–466,,,
  18. George W. Ellis. Negro Culture in West Africa. New York, The Neale Publishing Company, 1914,
  19. Oric Bates, F. H. Sterns. “The origin of the Vai syllabary.” Varia Africana, I [Vol. 1], Harvard African Studies, I [Vol. 1], 1917, pp. 290–293,,,
  20. A. Klingenheben. “The Vai Script.” Africa: Journal of the International Institute of African Languages and Cultures, Volume VI [6], Number 2, April 1933, pp. 158–171,,
  21. A. Klingenheben. “Notes and News: The Vai Script.” Africa: Journal of the International Institute of African Languages and Cultures, Volume VII [7], Number 1, January 1934, pp. 97–99,,
  22. Zuke Kandakai, S. Jargaba Johnson, Bai Tamia Moore, Fatima Massaquoi Fahnbulleh. The Standard Vai Script ꕙꔤꕺꖃꕢꔤꕃꕞꕮꕉꘈ. The University of Liberia, African Studies Program, 1962-08-17,
  23. David Dalby. “A Survey of the Indigenous Scripts of Liberia and Sierra Leone: Vai, Mende, Loma, Kpelle and Bassa.” African Language Studies, VIII [8], School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 1967, pp. 1–51,
  24. David Dalby. “The indigenous scripts of West Africa and Surinam: their inspiration and design.” African Language Studies, IX [9], School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 1968, pp. 156–197,
  25. Gail Stewart, P. E. H. Hair. “A Bibliography of the Vai Language and Script.” Journal of West African Languages, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1969, pp. 109–124,
  26. Wm. E. Welmers. A Grammar of Vai. University of California Press, University of California Publications in Linguistics, Volume 84, 1976.
  27. Sylvia Scribner, Michael Cole. The Psychology of Literacy. Harvard University Press, 1981,,
  28. John Victor Singler. “Scripts of West Africa.” The World’s Writing Systems, Edited by Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, Oxford University Press, 1996, pp. 593–598,,
  29. Konrad Tuchscherer, P.E.H. Hair. “Cherokee and West Africa: Examining the Origins of the Vai Script.” History in Africa, Vol. 29, 2002, pp. 427–486,,
  30. Olena Tykhostup, Piers Kelly. “A Diachronic Comparison of the Vai Script of Liberia (1834–2005).” Journal of Open Humanities Data, Volume 4, Article 2, 2018,